Earth science lab relative dating 2
A late Middle Pleistocene Denisovan mandible from the Tibetan Plateau
Denisovans are members of a hominin group who are currently only known directly from fragmentary fossils, the genomes of which have been studied from a single site, Denisova Cave 1 , 2 , 3 in Siberia. They are also known indirectly from their genetic legacy through gene flow into several low-altitude East Asian populations 4 , 5 and high-altitude modern Tibetans 6. The lack of morphologically informative Denisovan fossils hinders our ability to connect geographically and temporally dispersed fossil hominins from Asia and to understand in a coherent manner their relation to recent Asian populations.
This includes understanding the genetic adaptation of humans to the high-altitude Tibetan Plateau 7 , 8 , which was inherited from the Denisovans. The Xiahe specimen provides direct evidence of the Denisovans outside the Altai Mountains and its analysis unique insights into Denisovan mandibular and dental morphology. Our results indicate that archaic hominins occupied the Tibetan Plateau in the Middle Pleistocene epoch and successfully adapted to high-altitude hypoxic environments long before the regional arrival of modern Homo sapiens.
All the proteomic mass spectrometry data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange Consortium repository http: A surface scan model of the Xiahe mandible is publicly available at: All R code used to generate protein deamidation and peptide cleavage patterns are available upon request from F. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Krause, J. The complete mitochondrial DNA genome of an unknown hominin from southern Siberia.
Nature , — Sawyer, S. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences from two Denisovan individuals. Natl Acad. USA , — Slon, V. A fourth Denisovan individual. Browning, S. Analysis of human sequence data reveals two pulses of archaic Denisovan admixture. Cell , 53—61 Sankararaman, S. The combined landscape of Denisovan and Neanderthal ancestry in present-day humans. Chen, F. Agriculture facilitated permanent human occupation of the Tibetan Plateau after B. Science , — Meyer, M. Permanent human occupation of the central Tibetan Plateau in the early Holocene.
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Jeong, C. Admixture facilitates genetic adaptations to high altitude in Tibet. Hackinger, S. Wide distribution and altitude correlation of an archaic high-altitude-adaptive EPAS1 haplotype in the Himalayas. Zhang, D. History and possible mechanisms of prehistoric human migration to the Tibetan Plateau. China Earth Sci. Yuan, B. New evidence for human occupation of the northern Tibetan Plateau, China during the Late Pleistocene. Zhao, M. Mitochondrial genome evidence reveals successful Late Paleolithic settlement on the Tibetan Plateau.
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The complete genome sequence of a Neanderthal from the Altai Mountains. Nature , 43—49 Lisiecki, L. Paleoceanography 20 , PA Uemura, R. Ranges of moisture-source temperature estimated from Antarctic ice cores stable isotope records over glacial—interglacial cycles. Past 8 , — North Greenland Ice Core Project members. High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period. Beck, J. A ,year record of East Asian monsoon rainfall from 10 Be in loess.
Madsen, D. Early foraging settlement of the Tibetan Plateau highlands. Asia 11 , 15—26 Brantingham, J. Shen, C. Acta 72 , — Acta 99 , 71—86 Wiley, D. Evolutionary morphing. IEEE Visualization — Gunz, P. Hystrix It. Mitteroecker, P. Linear discrimination, ordination, and the visualization of selection gradients in modern morphometrics. Copes, L.
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Earth science lab relative dating 2 answers
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